Ce este cancerul?

Cancerul reprezinta cresterea necontrolata a celulelor anormale din organism. Cancerul se dezvolta in momentul in care mecanismul normal de control al organismului nu mai functioneaza.

Celulele vechi nu mor si in schimb cresc, scapand de sub control, formand celule noi, anormale. Aceste celule suplimentare pot crea o masa de tesut, numita tumora. Unele tipuri de cancer, cum ar fi leucemia, nu formeaza tumori.

Care sunt cele mai frecvente forme de cancer?

Cancerul poate aparea oriunde in corp. La femei, cancerul de san este unul dintre cele mai frecvente. La barbati, cel mai des intalnit este cancerul de prostata. Cancerul pulmonar si cancerul colorectal afecteaza atat barbatii cat si femeile in numar mare.

Exista cinci categorii principale de cancer:

  1. Carcinoamele incep la nivelul pielii sau tesuturilor care aliniaza organele interne.
  2. Sarcoamele se dezvolta in os, cartilaj, grasime, muschi sau alte tesuturi conjunctive.
  3. Leucemia incepe in sange si maduva osoasa.
  4. Limfoamele incep in sistemul imunitar.
  5. Cancerele sistemului nervos central se dezvolta la nivelul creierului si maduvei spinarii.

Cum este tratat cancerul?

Optiunile de tratament depind de tipul de cancer, stadiul acestuia, daca cancerul s-a raspandit, si de starea ta generala de sanatate. Scopul tratamentului este de a ucide cat mai multe celule canceroase, reducand in acelasi timp deteriorarea celulelor normale din apropiere. Progresele tehnologice fac acest lucru posibil.

Cele trei tratamente principale sunt:

  1. Chirurgie: indepartarea directa a tumorii;
  2. Chimioterapie: folosirea substantelor chimice pentru uciderea celulelor canceroase;
  3. Radioterapie: folosind radiografii pentru a ucide celulele canceroase.

Acelasi tip de cancer la un individ este foarte diferit de cancerul la alt individ. In cadrul unui singur tip de cancer, cum ar fi cancerul de san, cercetatorii descopera subtipuri care necesita fiecare o abordare diferita de tratament.

Ce este oncologia?

Ramura medicinii dedicata diagnosticarii, tratarii si cercetarii cancerului este cunoscuta sub numele de oncologie, in timp ce un medic care lucreaza in domeniu, este numit oncolog. Unii oncologi se concentreaza exclusiv pe anumite tipuri de cancer sau tratamente.

In functie de tipul, stadiul si locatia unui cancer, mai multi specialisti in oncologie pot fi implicati in ingrijirea unui pacient. Domeniul oncologiei are trei specialitati principale: medical, chirurgical si radiatii, si numeroase sub-specialitati.

Un medic oncolog este un medic autorizat (de obicei in medicina interna) instruit in diagnosticarea, stadializarea si tratarea cancerului. Acest specialist conduce de asemenea, dezvoltarea planului de tratament al bolnavului de cancer, care poate include chirurgie, chimioterapie, imunoterapie, terapie tintita sau terapie hormonala; coordonand in acelasi timp si alti specialisti oncologici care pot avea un rol in ingrijirea pacientului.

Un medic oncolog este de asemenea, medicul pe care un pacient cu cancer va continua sa il vada dupa tratament, pentru controale pe termen lung. Un medic chirurg oncolog, este un chirurg specializat in efectuarea biopsiilor si eliminarea tumorilor canceroase si a tesutului inconjurator, precum si in alte operatii legate de cancer.

Un medic oncolog este specializat in tratarea cancerului cu radioterapie pentru a micsora sau distruge celulele canceroase sau pentru a usura simptomele legate de cancer.

Multe tipuri de cancer sunt tratate de o sub-specialitate oncologica. Oncologii ginecologici, de exemplu, sunt instruiti pentru a trata cancerul sistemului reproducator feminin, cum ar fi cele care afecteaza uterul, colul uterin sau ovarele, in timp ce oncologii hematologici sunt specializati in diagnosticarea si tratarea cancerelor de sange (leucemie, limfom si mielom multiplu).

Un neuro-oncolog trateaza cancerele creierului, ale coloanei vertebrale si ale nervilor periferici.

Ce puteti face pentru a gestiona efectele secundare ale tratamentului cancerului?

Serviciile de ingrijire de asistenta descriu o gama larga de terapii concepute pentru a combate efectele secundare si a mentine bunastarea. Tratarea cancerului necesita concentrarea mai mult decat asupra bolii singure; de asemenea, trebuie sa abordeze durerea, oboseala, depresia si alte efecte secundare care vin cu ea.

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