Ce-este-boala-celiaca

Ce este boala celiaca?

Boala celiaca este o boala autoimuna in care consumul de alimente care contin (glutenul este o proteina gasita in grau, orz si secara), declanseaza celulele albe din sange sa atace mucoasa intestinului subtire.

Este foarte important de mentionat faptul ca boala celiaca are o gama larga de simptome potentiale, de la dureri abdominale la dureri de cap. Acestea pot fi abordate, iar leziunile intestinale sunt adesea inversate in mare masura, dupa ce ati fost diagnosticat si incepeti sa urmati o dieta fara gluten, aceasta fiind singurul tratament actual pentru aceasta afectiune.

Persoanele care au boala celiaca netratata, adesea nu pot absorbi nutrienti din alimentele lor si acest lucru poate duce la complicatii grave de sanatate, cun ar fi malnutritia, osteoporoza, infertilitatea si chiar si cancerul.

Simptomele bolii celiace

Exista mai mult de 200 de simptome potentiale ale bolii celiace. Desi isi are originea in tractul digestiv, starea poate afecta toate sistemele corpului, afectand totul, de la creier la piele. Cele mai frecvente simptome includ:

  • Diaree si / sau constipatie (uneori alternativa).
  • Balonare.
  • Durere abdominala.
  • Oboseala.
  • Dureri de cap (inclusiv migrene).
  • Afectiuni ale pielii (inclusiv asa-numita dermatita herpetiforma „eruptie pe gluten”).

Unele persoane cu boala celiaca nu pot raporta nici macar probleme intestinale. De exemplu, pot avea dureri articulare si ceata cerebrala. De asemenea, pot avea depresie si / sau anxietate sau furnicaturi in brate si picioare (neuropatie periferica), care implica leziuni ale nervilor.

De fapt, exista o mare varietate de simptome neurologice asociate bolii celiace, inclusiv alternante in simturi.

Simptomele pot varia

Simptomele pot varia, de asemenea, in functie de sex si varsta:

  • Femeile cu boala celiaca au adesea simptome legate de tractul lor reproductiv; pot avea cicluri neregulate sau perioade foarte dureroase.
  • Este posibil ca barbatii cu boala celiaca sa fie mai slabi si sa sufere de simptome de reflux. De asemenea, par sa aiba mai multe eruptii pe piele decat femeile.
  • Copiii cu boala celiaca ar putea avea tulburari de deficit de atentie-hiperactivitate sau alte probleme comportamentale. si ar putea fi de asemenea, „consumatori pretentiosi”. Adolescentii se pot lupta cu depresia.
  • Sugarii sau copiii mici cu boala celiaca pot avea dureri de burta, pot avea de-asemene burta umflata sau pot sa nu creasca si sa se dezvolte asa cum ar trebui.
  • In cele din urma, este posibil sa aveti boala celiaca fara niciun simptom. Aceasta se numeste boala celiaca tacuta. Persoanele cu acest tip de boala celiaca se pot simti bine, dar au in continuare leziunile intestinale care caracterizeaza afectiunea.

Cauzele bolii celiace

Captuseala intestinului subtire este alcatuita din proiectii mici, asemanatoare degetelor, numite vilozitati, care va ajuta sa digerati alimentele. Reactia autoimuna in boala celiaca ataca aceste vilozitati, ceea ce duce la simptome si complicatii.

Aveti nevoie de doua lucruri pentru a avea boala celiaca: potentialul genetic de a dezvolta boala, plus gluten in dieta. Fara unul sau altul din acesti factori, cu siguranta nu veti dezvolta afectiunea.

Cu toate acestea, acest lucru este departe de sfarsitul povestii, deoarece multi oameni care au gene pentru boala celiaca nu dezvolta niciodata afectiunea. Nu este deloc clar de ce unii oameni cu asa-numitele “gene celiace” se confrunta cu boala, iar altii nu. Unii experti considera ca ai nevoie si de un fel de „declansator” care te determina sa dezvolti boala celiaca.

Exista oameni care cred ca o perioada stresanta din viata lor a declansat boala celiaca. In plus, multe femei raporteaza aparitia simptomelor dupa o sarcina, un alt potential declansator. Cu toate acestea, altii care au boala celiaca raporteaza un debut treptat al simptomelor, deci un declansator poate sa nu fie esential.

Diagnosticul bolii celiace

A depista aceasta afectiune nu este tocmai simplu. De obicei, este nevoie de mai multe teste de sange plus o procedura cunoscuta sub numele de endoscopie pentru a determina daca aveti aceasta afectiune. Acest proces este posibil sa dureze de la cateva saptamani la cateva luni.

Testele de sange, care reprezinta de obicei primul pas in procesul de diagnosticare, analizeaza sangele pentru a detecta niveluri ridicate de anticorpi asociati cu reactia organismului la gluten in dieta. Deoarece testele cauta reactia efectiva la gluten, trebuie sa mancati o dieta care contine gluten pentru ca acestea sa fie corecte.

Daca analizele de sange revin pozitive, urmatorul pas in majoritatea cazurilor este o endoscopie, in care un chirurg foloseste un instrument pentru a privi direct la intestinul subtire si a preleva probe din mucoasa intestinala.

Pentru a fi diagnosticati oficial cu boala celiaca, aceste mostre de captuseala intestinala trebuie sa prezinte atrofia vilozitata care se gaseste in afectiune. Cu toate acestea, este posibil sa obtineti si un diagnostic prin testarea pielii daca aveti o eruptie cutanata care provoaca mancarime, legata de gluten, cunoscuta sub numele de dermatita herpetiforma.

Unele persoane pot avea simptome ale bolii celiace, dar au rezultate negative ale testului pentru afectiune. In acest caz, pot fi diagnosticati cu sensibilitate la gluten non-celiac, o afectiune recunoscuta recent, care nu este inca bine definita. Nu toti medicii sunt de acord ca exista sensibilitate la gluten si nu exista inca o modalitate acceptata de testare a acesteia.

Tratamentul bolii celiace

Desi exista in prezent mai multe medicamente potentiale pentru boala celiaca in curs de dezvoltare, exista doar un singur tratament pe care il puteti folosi chiar acum: dieta fara gluten. Pentru a trata daunele cauzate de gluten, trebuie sa eliminati glutenul in intregime. Dupa ce faceti acest lucru, mucoasa intestinala va incepe sa se vindece si alte complicatii ale bolii celiace (cum ar fi malnutritia) ar trebui sa inceapa sa se rezolve.

Acest lucru pare simplu, dar este mai dificil in practica. Trebuie sa evitati orice contine gluten, ceea ce inseamna cel mai probabil ca va fi nevoie sa mergeti la nutritionist pentru a va crea un regim alimentar sanatos si fara gluten.

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