Ce este si cum se trateaza depresia?

Depresia este clasificata ca tulburare de dispozitie, si se poate descrie ca fiind o stare cu sentimente de tristete, pierdere sau furie care interfereaza cu activitatile cotidiene ale unei persoane.

Oamenii experimenteaza depresia in moduri diferite. Poate interfera cu munca zilnica, ceea ce duce la pierderea timpului si la scaderea productivitatii. De asemenea, poate influenta relatiile si unele afectiuni cronice de sanatate.

Conditiile care se pot agrava din cauza depresiei includ:

  • artrita.
  • astm.
  • boala cardiovasculara.
  • cancer.
  • diabet.
  • obezitate.

Depresia este considerata o afectiune medicala grava care se poate agrava fara un tratament adecvat, iar cei care urmeaza un tratament adesea observa imbunatatiri ale simptomelor in doar cateva saptamani.

Simptomele depresiei

Depresia poate fi mai mult decat o stare constanta de tristete. Depresia majora poate provoca o varietate de simptome care afecteaza starea de spirit, iar altele va afecteaza corpul. Simptomele pot fi de asemenea, continue, sau vin si pleaca.

Simptomele depresiei pot fi experimentate diferit intre barbati, femei si copii diferit.

Barbatii pot prezenta simptome legate de:

  • starea de spirit, cum ar fi furia, agresivitatea, iritabilitatea, anxietatea, nelinistea.
  • bunastarea emotionala, cum ar fi sentimentul de a fi gol pe dinauntru, trist, fara speranta.
  • comportament, cum ar fi pierderea interesului, nu mai exista placere in activitatile preferate, senzatie de oboseala usoara, ganduri de sinucidere, consumul de bauturi alcoolice in exces, consum de droguri, implicare in activitati cu risc ridicat.
  • interesul sexual scazut, cum ar fi dorinta sexuala redusa, lipsa performantei sexuale.
  • abilitati cognitive, cum ar fi incapacitatea de concentrare, dificultati in indeplinirea sarcinilor, raspunsuri intarziate in timpul conversatiilor.
  • probleme legate de somn, cum ar fi insomnie, somn nelinistit, somnolenta excesiva, nu dormi peste noapte
  • starea fizica precara, cum ar fi oboseala, durerile, cefaleea, problemele digestive.

Femeile pot prezenta simptome legate de:

  • starea de spirit, cum ar fi iritabilitatea.
  • bunastarea emotionala, cum ar fi sentimentul tristete, neliniste sau fara speranta.
  • comportament, cum ar fi pierderea interesului pentru activitati, retragere din angajamentele sociale, ganduri de sinucidere
  • abilitati cognitive, cum ar fi gandirea sau vorbirea mai lent.
  • probleme legate de somn, cum ar fi dificultatile de a dormi toata noaptea, trezirea devreme, somnul prea mult.
  • probleme legate de starea fizica, cum ar fi scaderea energiei, oboseala mai mare, modificari ale apetitului, modificari in greutate, dureri de cap, crampe crescute.

Copiii pot prezenta simptome legate de:

  • starea de spirit, cum ar fi iritabilitatea, mania, schimbarile de dispozitie, plansul.
  • bunastarea emotionala, cum ar fi sentimentele de incompetenta (de exemplu, „nu pot face nimic corect”) sau disperare, plans, tristete intensa.
  • comportament, cum ar fi intrarea in probleme la scoala sau refuzul de a merge la scoala, evitarea prietenilor sau fratilor, ganduri de moarte sau sinucidere.
  • abilitati cognitive, cum ar fi dificultatile de concentrare, scaderea performantei scolare, modificari ale notelor.
  • probleme legate de somn, cum ar fi dificultatea de a dormi sau dormi prea mult.
  • probleme legate de starea fizica, cum ar fi pierderea de energie, probleme digestive, modificari ale apetitului, pierderea in greutate sau cresterea in greutate.

Cauzele depresiei

Exista mai multe cauze posibile ale depresiei. Ele pot varia de la biologice la circumstantiale.

Cauzele comune includ:

  • Istoric de familie. Aveti un risc mai mare de a dezvolta depresie daca aveti un istoric familial de depresie sau o alta tulburare de spirit.
  • Traume din copilarie timpurie. Unele evenimente afecteaza modul in care corpul reactioneaza la frica si situatii stresante.
  • Structura creierului. Exista un risc mai mare de depresie daca lobul frontal al creierului este mai putin activ. Cu toate acestea, oamenii de stiinta nu stiu daca acest lucru se intampla inainte sau dupa debutul simptomelor depresive.
  • Conditii medicale. Anumite afectiuni va pot prezenta un risc mai mare, cum ar fi boala cronica, insomnia, durerea cronica sau tulburarea de hiperactivitate cu deficit de atentie (ADHD).
  • Consumul de droguri. Un istoric de consum de droguri sau alcool va poate afecta riscul.

Aproximativ 21 la suta dintre persoanele care au o problema de consum de substante, se confrunta cu depresia.

Pe langa aceste cauze, alti factori de risc pentru depresie includ:

  • stima de sine scazuta sau fiind autocritic.
  • istoric personal al bolilor mintale.
  • anumite medicamente.
  • evenimente stresante, cum ar fi pierderea unei persoane dragi, probleme economice sau un divort.

Multi factori pot influenta sentimentele de depresie, precum si cine dezvolta afectiunea si cine nu.

Test de depresie

Nu exista un singur test pentru a diagnostica depresia. Dar furnizorul dumneavoastra de servicii medicale poate face un diagnostic bazat pe simptomele dvs. si pe o evaluare psihologica. In cele mai multe cazuri, ei vor pune o serie de intrebari despre starea de spirit, problemele de somn, ganduri, nivelul de activitate sau apetit.

Deoarece depresia poate fi legata de alte probleme de sanatate, furnizorul dumneavoastra de servicii medicale poate de asemenea, sa efectueze o examinare fizica si sa ordone efectuarea unor analize de sange. Uneori problemele tiroidiene sau o deficienta de vitamina D pot declansa simptome ale depresiei.

Nu ignorati simptomele depresiei. Daca starea ta de spirit nu se imbunatateste sau se inrautateste, solicitati ajutor medical.

Depresia este o boala grava de sanatate mentala cu potential de complicatii precum cresterea sau pierderea in greutate, durere fizica, probleme de consum de substante, atacuri de panica, izolare sociala, ganduri de sinucidere, autoagresiune, probleme de relatie.

Tipuri de depresie

Depresia poate fi impartita in categorii in functie de gravitatea simptomelor. Unele persoane experimenteaza episoade usoare si temporare, in timp ce altele experimenteaza episoade depresive severe si continue. Exista doua tipuri principale: tulburare depresiva majora si tulburare depresiva persistenta.

Tulburarea depresiva majora este forma mai severa a depresiei. Se caracterizeaza prin sentimente persistente de tristete, deznadejde si lipsa de valoare, care nu dispar singure. Tulburarea depresiva persistenta (PDD) se numea distimie. Este o forma mai usoara, dar cronica, a depresiei.

Tratament pentru depresie

Trairea cu depresie poate fi dificila, dar tratamentul va poate ajuta sa va imbunatatiti calitatea vietii. Discutati cu furnizorul de servicii medicale despre optiunile posibile. Puteti gestiona cu succes simptomele cu o singura forma de tratament sau puteti constata ca o combinatie de tratamente functioneaza cel mai bine.

Este comun sa combinati tratamente medicale si terapii de stil de viata, inclusiv urmatoarele: medicamente, psihoterapie, terapie usoara, terapii alternative, exercitii fizice (acestea provoaca productia de endofrine care va imbunatatesc starea de spirit). Evitati alcoolul si drogurile!

Tratament natural pentru depresie

Tratamentul traditional al depresiei foloseste o combinatie de medicamente pe baza de reteta si consiliere. Dar exista si tratamente alternative sau complementare pe care le puteti incerca.

Se pot administra suplimente, vitamine, si se spune ca uleiurile esentiale ar fi un remediu pentru multe afectiuni (inclusiv pentru depresie), in special cele de ghimbir salbatic, bergamota, musetel sau trandafir. Aceste uleiuri pot fi benefice in timpul utilizarii pe termen scurt.

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