Ce este obezitatea infantila?

Obezitatea in randul copiilor din pacate este in crestere de peste un deceniu si, potrivit American Heart Association (AHA), aproximativ unul din trei copii si adolescenti este obez sau supraponderal.

Dupa cum remarca AHA, aceasta rata este aproape tripla fata de ceea ce a fost in 1963. De fapt, obezitatea din copilarie a devenit atat de alarmant prevalenta, si o astfel de amenintare pentru sanatatea copiilor, incat Academia Americana de Pediatrie (AAP) are un intreg site web dedicat prevenirii sale. si tratament.

Dar speranta nu se pierde. Parintii de pretutindeni vor fi fericiti sa stie ca o serie de organizatii, pe langa AHA si AAP, inclusiv Organizatia Mondiala a Sanatatii (OMS), s-au alaturat luptei pentru a pune capat obezitatii copilariei.

Implicarea in lupta impotriva obezitatii copilului necesita intelegerea definitiilor, cauzelor, tratamentelor si oportunitatilor de prevenire.

Cum este definita obezitatea la copii

Pentru copiii cu varsta cuprinsa intre 2 si 19 ani, obezitatea este definita folosind indicele de masa corporala (IMC). Un IMC la sau peste 95 de procente pentru copii de aceeasi varsta si sex este clasificat ca obez. Un IMC la sau peste 85, dar mai mica decat 95, este considerat a se incadra in categoria excesului de greutate.

In cazul copiilor cu varsta mai mica de doi ani, in prezent nu exista o definitie la obezitate recomandata si convenita la nivel national.

Riscuri de sanatate

Exista numeroase si grave riscuri de sanatate asociate obezitatii la copii, atat pe termen scurt, cat si pe termen lung.

Copiii obezi sunt mai predispusi se confrunte cu probleme de sanatate precum hipertensiune arteriala (hipertensiune arteriala) si colesterol crescut in sange, ambii fiind factori de risc pentru viitoarele boli cardiovasculare (boli ale inimii si vaselor de sange, inclusiv vasele de sange care furnizeaza creierul).

Intr-un studiu de exemplu, s-a constatat ca 70 la suta dintre copiii obezi au cel putin un factor de risc pentru bolile cardiovasculare. Copiii care sunt obezi prezinta un risc mult mai mare de a dezvolta diabet de tip 2.

De fapt, cresterea diabetului de tip 2 la copii a starnit o mare ingrijorare in randul comunitatii medicale, intrucat „diabetul copilariei” era considerat ca fiind cel mai rar diabet de tip 1.

Acum, odata cu cresterea obezitatii din copilarie, a existat o adevarata explozie in cazurile de diabet de tip 2 la copii. Avand in vedere ca diabetul este un factor de risc puternic pentru bolile cardiovasculare, aceasta este o alta boala cu ramificatii grave pe termen lung.

In plus, copiii cu obezitate sunt mai susceptibili sa aiba probleme de respiratie, cum ar fi astmul si apneea obstructiva de somn.

Acesti copii au, de asemenea, mai multe sanse sa aiba probleme articulare si boli ale ficatului gras, care au fost asociate de-a lungul timpului cu ciroza si cancer hepatic. In cele din urma, dupa cum au remarcat multi experti, obezitatea sau excesul de greutate in copilarie duce adesea la obezitate la varsta adulta.

Cauze

Este imposibil de indicat o singura cauza a epidemiei de obezitate din copilarie. Mai degraba, exista o varietate si o combinatie de factori. O serie de studii au investigat motivele ratelor crescute ale obezitatii copilului, iar acum exista mai multe studii in desfasurare. Un stil de viata mai sedentar s-a dovedit cu siguranta a fi predominant in multe studii.

Si studiile au aratat ca copiii care se uita la televizor mai mult de o ora pe zi tind sa aiba un indice de masa corporala mai mare (IMC), precum si o tensiune arteriala mai mare.

Cercetatorii au sugerat ca mai mult timp petrecut in fata televizorului este asociat cu alegeri alimentare proaste care duc la supraponderalitate si obezitate si, la randul lor, la un risc cardiovascular crescut.

Declinul programelor de educatie fizica si timpul alocat activitatii fizice in timpul zilei scolare generale a fost, de asemenea, implicat in cresterea obezitatii copilariei si adolescentei. Pe langa obezitatea in sine, exista multe motive pentru care acest declin al activitatii fizice este de o ingrijorare serioasa; nivelurile mai mici de fitness tind sa creasca riscul de boli de inima.

Optiunile proaste de nutritie, reprezentate de consumul alimentelor bogate in calorii au fost, de asemenea, legate de obezitatea copilariei. Multe studii au descoperit o relatie intre anumite comportamente dietetice, cum ar fi consumul de bauturi zaharoase si obezitatea.

Aportul de bauturi indulcite a primit o multime de atentie si de cercetare, si a aratat o majoritate covarsitoare la o asociere intre aportul si obezitate lor, atat la copii si adulti.

In plus, multi clinicieni remarca faptul ca atunci cand copiii obezi si supraponderali urmeaza recomandarile in ceea ce priveste reducerea sau evitarea aportului de bauturi zaharoase, ei pierd in greutate.

Retineti ca categoria bauturilor zaharoase include atat bauturi racoritoare, cat si bauturi cu fructe si suc, carora adesea li se adauga mai multe zaharuri. De fapt, aportul de bauturi zaharoase a fost considerat atat de periculos pentru sanatatea copiilor si o cauza atat de majora a obezitatii, incat mai multe orase au pus impozite suplimentare sau etichete de avertizare.

Exista de asemenea, factori genetici in dezvoltarea obezitatii copilului, multi dintre ei fiind acum in curs de cercetare sau descoperire. De exemplu, oamenii de stiinta au descoperit ca gena FTO poate conferi o tendinta catre alimentatia binge si dezvoltarea obezitatii la adolescenti.

Gestionarea obezitatii copilariei

Daca un copil primeste un diagnostic de obezitate este greu pentru orice parinte sa gestioneze situatia. Daca va ingrijoreaza faptul ca copilul dvs. poate fi supraponderal sau obez, asigurati-va ca discutati cu ingrijorarea dvs. cu pediatrul copilului dvs. si cereti ajutor. Ei pot oferi strategii care pot duce la pierderea in greutate si care sunt adecvate pentru copilul dvs. si situatia dvs.

Daca copilului dumneavoastra i s-a oferit un diagnostic de obezitate, puteti colabora cu el intr-un mod pozitiv pentru a face activitatea fizica zilnica mai distractiva – mai ales daca nu are acces la educatia fizica la scoala. In plus, il puteti incuraja sa aiba o alimentatie mai sanatoasa.

In plus, o  serie de tratamente sunt acum disponibile pentru obezitate. Pe langa schimbarile de stil de viata, acestea includ medicamente anti-obezitate si chirurgie bariatrica (pierdere in greutate).

In timp ce schimbarile de stil de viata, cum ar fi dieta si exercitiile fizice, sunt terapia de prima linie pentru toata lumea, acest lucru este valabil mai ales pentru copii. Copiii pot avea efecte secundare mai mari in urma medicamentelor sau a tratamentelor mai invazive.

Cu toate acestea, este important sa discutati toate posibilitatile si cele mai bune optiuni pentru copilul dvs. cu medicul pediatru.

Amintiti-va intotdeauna ca obezitatea este tratabila si, avand in vedere numarul de copii din intreaga tara si de pe tot globul care au fost diagnosticati cu supraponderale sau obezitate, cu siguranta nu sunteti singuri in lupta dvs. impotriva acesteia.

112 thoughts on “Ce este obezitatea infantila?

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