Ce este astmul?

Astmul este o boala pulmonara cronica care provoaca episoade de respiratie dificila. Cand aveti astm, caile respiratorii sunt foarte sensibile si pot reactiona la o serie de declansatori diferiti, precum fum, polen sau infectii. Aceasta duce la caile respiratorii restranse si inflamate care provoaca obstructia fluxului de aer.

Astmul poate fi tratat cu medicamente care controleaza starea pe termen lung, precum si cu inhalatoare de salvare pentru a trata atacurile. Astmul are un impact imens asupra societatii. Peste 26 de milioane de oameni din SUA de exemplu, inclusiv aproximativ 6 milioane de copii au astm.

Tipuri de astm

Exista de fapt mai multe tipuri diferite de astm. Intelegerea specificului pe care il aveti va poate ajuta sa obtineti cel mai eficient tratament. Tipurile includ:

  • Astm alergic: Aceasta se refera la dezvoltarea simptomelor de astm dupa expunerea la alergeni, cum ar fi matreata animal, acarieni, alergie la gandaci si mucegai.
  • Astmul indus de exercitiu (EIA): care are impact asupra a mai multor persoane; EIA se caracterizeaza prin bronhoconstrictie si simptome de astm care se dezvolta in timpul sau dupa exercitarea fizica.
  • Astmul ocupational: Aceasta afectiune respiratorie obisnuita rezulta din expuneri la locul de munca.
  • Astmul pentru variante de tuse: in timp ce tusea este un simptom comun de astm, este in general cel mai semnificativ sau singurul simptom in acest tip de astm.
  • Astmul nocturn (noaptea): simptomele apar noaptea, care interfereaza cu somnul.

Simptome de astm

Simptomele clasice ale astmului sunt respiratia suieratoare, etanseitatea pieptului, dificultatea respiratiei si tuse. Astmul nu este o boala statica. Simptomele tale se vor inradacina in timp si vor fi diferite de cele ale altora.

Daca simptomele astmului tau devin severe, este o urgenta medicala care poate duce la suferinte respiratorii si chiar la moarte. Semnele unui atac grav de astm includ respiratie foarte rapida, dificultati de vorbire din cauza dificultatii de respiratie, transpiratii profunde, respiratie suieratoare si tuse si a o senzatie de imensitate. Daca aveti oricare dintre acestea, trebuie sa mergeti la camera de urgenta.

Cauze

Astmul a crescut dramatic in ultimele cateva decenii. Desi nu se cunoaste cauza exacta a astmului, multi cred ca urmatorii factori actioneaza impreuna pentru a provoca astm sau sunt factori de risc pentru afectiune:

  • Atopia (o tendinta mostenita de a dezvolta alergie).
  • Istoric familial de astm.
  • Contractarea anumitor infectii respiratorii in prima copilarie.
  • Expunerea la alergeni si infectii virale in timpul copilariei timpurii (pe masura ce se dezvolta sistemul imunitar).
  • Rinita alergica.
  • Expunerea la fum de tigara.
  • Obezitatea.
  • Hiperreactivitate a cailor aeriene (o reactie exagerata a cailor respiratorii la diversi stimuli).

Diagnostic

Diagnosticul de astm nu este intotdeauna usor. Pentru ca medicul dumneavoastra sa faca un diagnostic de astm trebuie sa:

  • Aveti simptome compatibile cu astmul.
  • Demonstrati scaderea fluxului de aer in plamani care se imbunatateste partial sau complet spontan sau cu tratament.
  • Furnizorul dumneavoastra de asistenta medicala va lua in general, un istoric detaliat si va efectua un examen fizic. El sau ea pot comanda alte teste care sa ajute la realizarea unui diagnostic, cum ar fi testarea functiei pulmonare, radiografie toracica sau anumite analize de sange.

Tratament

Tratamentul astmului este concentrat atat pe prevenirea si controlul simptomelor, cat si pe reducerea inflamatiei. Planul de actiune pentru astm este in centrul acestui lucru.

Planul dvs., care trebuie revizuit periodic cu medicul dumneavoastra, acopera domeniile esentiale carora trebuie sa le acordati atentie pentru a evita problemele de astm:

Monitorizare: monitorizand frecventa si severitatea simptomelor, sunteti mai capabil sa luati masuri adecvate sau sa identificati atunci cand faceti ceva incorect.

Evitarea declansatorilor: Un jurnal de astm poate ajuta daca simptomele de astm se agraveaza, deoarece va poate ajuta sa observati tiparele de simptome care apar cu expuneri diferite – informatiile de care aveti nevoie pentru a putea lucra pentru a le evita.

Tratamentul cu medicamente: Tratamentul dumneavoastra pentru astm va combina utilizarea regulata a medicamentelor de control cu ​​utilizarea periodica a medicamentelor de eliberare atunci cand simptomele va declanseaza.

Este esential sa intelegeti ce medicamente trebuie sa utilizati cand, cum sa le luati si cat de des trebuie sa le luati. Nerespectarea unui regim de tratament este un motiv comun pentru care pacientii cu astm nu reusesc sa obtina un control optim al astmului.

Trairea cu astm poate fi dificila si este posibil sa va simtiti suparat, frustrat sau fara chef, sau sa considerat ca nu puteti face unele lucruri de care v-ati bucurat inainte de a afla diagnosticul. Dar daca acordati atentie detaliilor de gestionare a succesului astmului, puteti duce o viata activa, sanatoasa.

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